- Cerebral Palsy Among Children FACT: An estimated 3 to 4 in every 1,000 school-age children in metropolitan Atlanta have cerebral palsy
- Diagnosis of cerebral palsy a research status report - 2002
- Length and force of the gastrocnemius and soleus Length and force of the gastrocnemius and soleus during gait following tendo Achilles lengthenings in children with equinus
- Lower limb extensor moments in chindren with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy McNee AE, Shortland AP, Eve LC, Robinson RO, Gough M
- The Effects of Quantitative gait Assessment and Botulinum Toxin A on Musculoskeletal Surgery The Effects of Quantitative gait Assessment and Botulinum Toxin A on Musculoskeletal Surgery in Children with Cerebral Palsy
- Transverse plane rotation of the foot and transverse hip and pelvic kinematics Gaston MS, Rutz E, Dreher T, Brunner R.
- abstract 1 Crouch gait in spastic diplegia after hell cord lengthening
- abstract 2 Crouch gait in cerebral palsy - The effects of Psoas lengthening
- abstract 3 Limits to passive range of joint motion and the effect on crouch gait in children with cerebral palsy
- abstract 4 Improved knee extension capacity following derotation of the tibia in a subject with crouch gait
- Hip locomotion mechanisms in cerebral palsy crouch gait Steinwender G, Saraph V, Zwick EB, Steinwender C, Linhart W
- The role of estimating muscle-tendon lengths and velocities of the Hamstrings The role of estimating muscle-tendon lengths and velocities of the Hamstrings in the evaluation and treatment of crouch gait
UCP Research and Educational Foundation
Orendurff MS, Aiona MD, Dorociak RD, Pierce RA
"Nine subjects (12 sides) with cerebral palsy who walked in equnius were evaluated prior to and 1 year after surgical tendo Achilles lengthening. Gastrocnemius and soleus length [Gait Posture, 6 (1997) 9] and plantarflexor force [Gait Posture, 6 (1997) 9; J Biomech, 23 (1990) 495] were calculated. The length of the gastrocnemius and soleus increased significantly (P<0.01) following the intervention. Force output of the triceps surae during push-off increased significantly (13.95 N/kg body weight (BW) preop to 30.31 N/kg BW postop; P<0.01). Assessment of the force-length capacity of the triceps surae in candidates for tendo Achilles lengthenings may identify individuals at risk of residual weakness and iatrogenic crouch."
"In this retrospective study, we quantified the mean extensor moment at the ankle, knee and hip over the stance period in a group of independently ambulant children with spastic diplegia (n = 90; 167 limbs) and in a group of normally-developing (ND) children (n = 22; 22 limbs). The mean knee extensor moment and the mean support moment demonstrated greater variance in children with diplegia than in normally-developing children (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.001). This was explained by a strong relationship between the mean knee extensor moment and minimum knee flexion in stance (r2 = 0.615; P < 0.0001) in the affected group with a positive mean knee extensor moment for all those children who walked in greater than 20 degrees of knee flexion. We also found a linear relationship between the support moment and knee flexion (r2 = 0.805; P < 0.0001). Our data supported the biomechanical analysis of Hof [Gait Posture, 12 (2000) 196] who suggested that his modified support moment should be a linear function with eccentricity at the knee. Extensor moments at the ankle (r2 = 0.001376; P = 0.641) and hip (r2 = 0.0860; P = 0.000168) bore weak relationships with increasing knee flexion even though there was a strong positive relationship between minimum knee flexion and minimum hip flexion (r2 = 0.316; P < 0.0001). We conclude that children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (SDCP) who walk with a crouch gait rely on their knee extensors to prevent collapse of the lower limbs. Intervention directed at redistributing extensor moments between the joints of the lower limbs may slow the increase in knee flexion and prolong reasonable walking function in this group."
Molenaers G, Desloovere K, Fabry G, De Cock P
The progression to orthopaedic surgery was significantly different among the three groups (p < 0.0001). The proportion of patients who had undergone at least one surgical procedure by the age of seven years was 52% (sixty-four of 122) for Group 1, 27% (forty-six of 170) for Group 2, and 10% (thirteen of 132) for Group 3. There was a delay in surgery in Group 2 as compared with Group 1 (p < 0.00001 at seven, eight, and nine years of age) and a significant decrease in the prevalence of orthopaedic surgical procedures for Group 3 as compared with Group 1 (p < 0.00001 at four to eight years of age) and Group 2 (p < 0.0025 at four to nine years of age).
In the treatment of children who have cerebral palsy, the introduction of gait analysis increases the age of the first orthopaedic surgical procedure and botulinum toxin type-A treatment delays and reduces the frequency of surgical procedures."
"External rotation of the foot associated with mid-foot break is a commonly observed gait abnormality in diplegic CP patients. Previous studies have shown a correlation between equinus and internal hip rotation in hemiplegic patients. This study aimed to determine if there was a correlation between the amount of transverse plane rotation in diplegic CP patients using kinematic data from standardised gait analysis. Lower limb data of 134 ambulant children with diplegic CP was analysed retrospectively determining the maximum change in foot, hip and pelvis rotation during loading response. Highly significant negative correlations (P=<0.001) were found between foot and hip movements and foot and pelvic movements. Equinus at initial contact diminished the foot:hip correlation while it enhanced the foot:pelvic correlation. There was less external rotation of the foot in equinus patients (P=0.012) and more external rotation of the pelvis in the equinus group (P=<0.001). This data reveal a correlation between transverse plane rotation at foot level to that at the hip and pelvis. The likely biomechanical explanation is relatively excessive transverse external rotation of the foot due to abnormalities such as mid-foot break. When under load, where the foot is fixed to the floor, internal rotation of the entire leg occurs. This is due to lever arm disease as a result of the relatively shortened foot and inefficiency of the plantar-flexion knee-extension couple. Equinus modulates the effect. When treating such patients, lever arm deformities at all levels must be considered to result in the best outcome and prevent recurrences."
Lenght of Hamstrings and Psoas muscles during crouch gait
"The purpose of this study was to evaluate three defined locomotion patterns in cerebral palsy gait using computerised gait analysis. Ambulant diplegic children who had no previous surgery were included in the study and were divided into two groups: one group consisted of children having a crouch gait, and the other group did not have the crouch pattern of gait. An age-matched group of normal children served as the control group. Locomotion patterns studied were the hip hike, propulsive function of the hip extensors, and pseudo-adduction. A statistical analysis was performed between the groups, using defined parameters. The mechanism of hip hike was not utilised by any of the groups. Both groups of diplegic children showed power generation at the hip beginning in the first double support phase of the gait cycle and continuing in the first half of single limb support, while in the normals this was only in the first half of single limb support. Both the groups of diplegic children showed significantly more internal rotation in the first half of stance as compared to the group of normal children; the degree of hip adduction was the same in all the groups. Thus diplegic children had pseudo-adduction."
Arnold AS, Liu MQ, Schwartz MH, Ounpuu S, Delp SL
"Persons with cerebral palsy frequently walk with excessive knee flexion during terminal swing and stance. This gait abnormality is often attributed to "short" or "spastic" hamstrings that restrict knee extension, and is often treated by hamstrings lengthening surgery. At present, the outcomes of these procedures are inconsistent. This study examined whether analyses of the muscle-tendon lengths and lengthening velocities of patients' hamstrings during walking may be helpful when deciding whether a candidate is likely to benefit from hamstrings surgery. One hundred and fifty-two subjects were cross-classified in a series of multi-way contingency tables based on their pre- and postoperative gait kinematics, muscle-tendon lengths, muscle-tendon velocities, and hamstrings surgeries. The lengths and velocities of the subjects' semimembranosus muscles were estimated by combining kinematic data from gait analysis with a three-dimensional computer model of the lower extremity. Log-linear analysis revealed that the subjects who walked with abnormally "short" or "slow" hamstrings preoperatively, and whose hamstrings did not operate at longer lengths or faster velocities postoperatively, were unlikely to walk with improved knee extension after treatment (p < 0.05). Subjects who did not walk with abnormally short or slow hamstrings preoperatively, and whose hamstrings did operate at longer lengths or faster velocities postoperatively, tended to exhibit unimproved or worsened anterior pelvic tilt after treatment (p < 0.05). Examination of the muscle-tendon lengths and velocities allows individuals who walk with abnormally short or slow hamstrings to be distinguished from those who do not, and thus may help to identify patients who are at risk for unsatisfactory postsurgical changes in knee extension or anterior pelvic tilt."